IMG_20170627_053335“If the core of a star is more than 40% more massive than the Sun, the “degeneration pressure” of the Stellar gas can no longer resist the pull of gravity. The electrons are, as it were, pushed into the atomic nuclei. The result is a neutron star.

Neutron stars are among the most bizarre objects in the cosmos. They are more massive than the Sun, but all that material is strongly compressed into a ball with a diameter of no more than 30 kilometers. The density of a neutron star is therefore enormous: one teaspoon of a neutron star matter easily weighs some five billion tons.  The surface gravity is a few hundred times as strong as it is on Earth…..” – DeepSpace

  1. IMG_20170703_043341“…but that still accounts to a few hundred billion. One of those small stars in the Milky Way is our Sun,  the source of energy for all life on Earth.  It is nothing more than a “pinprick” in the dark expanse of the cosmos,  but it is indispensable in bringing us light and heat. ”                                                                             Book – Deep Space – Beyond the Solar System to the Edge of the Universe and the Beginning of Time…

To a #UnitedEarth…


Globalization that Works

Damon Mathews on Globalization…

With over 3/4 of the world’s population living in developing countries high in poverty and unemployment it is the task of the United States, along with the free world, to lead the way to a time of unprecedented growth akin to the period between 1948-1973, this time, raising all ships to a new level of prosperity managed in such a way as to create the conditions and opportunity for the greatest amount of people to be lifted out of unemployment and poverty, while at the same time halting, then reversing climate change.

Free Trade, Bi Lateral Free Trade or “Protectionism”

Damon Mathews…

Will the bilateral free trade agreements standardize protections for labor in the home country or globally?

Will/Can bilateral trade agreements create an inclusive free trade zone for countries wishing to adhere to fair trade practices?

Can a country with protectionist trade policies compete with a united free trading block of countries with a higher total GDP where the protectionist country’s goods are tariffed within the free trade zone?

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(November 13, 2014 – Reuters)

(Reuters) – Legislation to approve the controversial Keystone XL oil pipeline began racing through the U.S. Congress on Wednesday as Democrats and Republicans appeared to be coming together in a challenge of President Barack Obama’soversight of the project.

In a series of rapid developments that unfolded just hours after Congress returned from a seven-week recess, there were indications the measure could pass and be sent to Obama sometime next week.

Republicans, victorious in the Nov. 4 congressional elections in which they campaigned heavily on the need for Keystone, have been pushing for approval of the project amid objections from some Democrats.

“It is time for America to become energy independent and that is impossible without the Keystone pipeline and other pipelines like it,” Democratic Senator Mary Landrieu of Louisiana told reporters. Landrieu and Senator John Hoeven, a Republican of North Dakota, introduced the bill on May 1.

Landrieu, who chairs the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee, is fighting for her political life as she faces a runoff race early next month that will determine whether she can serve another six-year Senate term beginning in January.

Landrieu acknowledged to reporters that she had no commitment from Obama that he would sign a Keystone bill if Congress sends one to him.

Obama is currently in Asia, and a spokesman traveling with him said the White House took a dim view of the proposal.

“The administration has taken a dim view of these kinds of legislative proposals in the past,” said White House spokesman Josh Earnest, speaking to reporters in Naypyitaw, the capital of Myanmar. “It’s fair to say that our dim view of these kinds of proposals has not changed.

“Evaluating those earlier proposals, we have indicated that the president’s senior advisers at the White House have recommended that he veto legislation like that,” Earnest added. “And that has continued to be our position.” [click to continue…]


New record for fusion

Alcator C-Mod tokamak nuclear fusion reactor sets world record on final day of operation.
October 14, 2016 – MIT News 

On Friday, Sept. 30, at 9:25 p.m. EDT, scientists and engineers at MIT’s Plasma Science and Fusion Center made a leap forward in the pursuit of clean energy. The team set a new world record for plasma pressure in the Institute’s Alcator C-Mod tokamak nuclear fusion reactor. Plasma pressure is the key ingredient to producing energy from nuclear fusion, and MIT’s new result achieves over 2 atmospheres of pressure for the first time.

Alcator leader and senior research scientist Earl Marmar will present the results at the International Atomic Energy Agency Fusion Energy Conference, in Kyoto, Japan, on Oct. 17.

Nuclear fusion has the potential to produce nearly unlimited supplies of clean, safe, carbon-free energy. Fusion is the same process that powers the sun, and it can be realized in reactors that simulate the conditions of ultrahot miniature “stars” of plasma — superheated gas — that are contained within a magnetic field.

Nuclear fusion has the potential to produce nearly unlimited supplies of clean, safe, carbon-free energy. This 360-degree tour provides look at MIT’s recently deactivated Alcator C-Mod tokamak nuclear fusion reactor, which set a world pressure record on its final day of operation.

Video: MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center

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